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The Brontesaurus: An A–Z of Charlotte, Emily and Anne Brontë (and Branwell)

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Brontosaurus parvus, first described as Elosaurus in 1902 by Peterson and Gilmore, was reassigned to Apatosaurus in 1994, and to Brontosaurus in 2015. Specimens assigned to this species include the holotype, CM 566 (a partial skeleton of a juvenile found in Sheep Creek Quarry 4 in Albany County, WY), BYU 1252-18531 (a nearly complete skeleton found in Utah and mounted at Brigham Young University), and the partial skeleton UW 15556. It dates to the middle Kimmeridgian. [17] Adult specimens are estimated to have weighed up to 14 tonnes and measured up to 22m (72ft) long from head to tail. [36] Left front limb of B. yahnahpin, Morrison Natural History Museum a b Barrett, P. M.; Storrs, G. W.; Young, M. T.; Witmer, L. M. (2011). "A new skull of Apatosaurus and its taxonomic and palaeobiological implications" (PDF). Symposium of Vertebrate Palaeontology & Comparative Anatomy Abstracts of Presentations: 5.

Another specimen of an Apatosaurine now referred to Brontosaurus was discovered in 1993 by the Tate Geological Museum, also from the Morrison Formation of central Wyoming. The specimen consisted of a partial postcranial skeleton, including a complete manus and multiple vertebrae, and was described by James Filla and Pat Redman a year later. [26] Filla and Redman named the specimen Apatosaurus yahnahpin ("yahnahpin-wearing deceptive lizard"), but Robert T. Bakker gave it the genus name Eobrontosaurus in 1998. [26] Bakker believed that Eobrontosaurus was the direct predecessor to Brontosaurus, [26] although Tschopp et al.'s phylogenetic analysis placed B. yahnahpin as the basalmost species of Brontosaurus. [10]But when it started looking like Brontosaurus might be real after all, they asked Roger Benson at the University of Oxford to join their team and run a statistical analysis on their findings. “Roger’s calculations gave the same results,” Tschopp says. “ Brontosaurus should be valid.” Foster, John R.; Peterson, Joseph E. (September 1, 2016). "First report of Apatosaurus (Diplodocidae: Apatosaurinae) from the Cleveland-Lloyd Quarry in the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of Utah: Abundance, distribution, paleoecology, and taphonomy of an endemic North American sauropod clade". Palaeoworld. 25 (3): 431–443. doi: 10.1016/j.palwor.2015.11.006. ISSN 1871-174X. Apatosaurus was named in 1877 by US paleontologist Othniel C. Marsh. It was called Apatosaurus, which means “deceptive lizard,” because its fossils were so similar to those of other sauropods.The first relatively complete Apatosaurus fossil was found by Earl Douglass in the Morrison Formation (then called the Carnegie quarry) in Colorado, USA. a b Pierson, D. J. (2009). "The Physiology of Dinosaurs: Circulatory and Respiratory Function in the Largest Animals Ever to Walk the Earth". Respiratory Care. 54 (7): 887–911. doi: 10.4187/002013209793800286. PMID 19558740. If this computer modelling study proves correct, then many things can be surmised about Apatosaurus. For example, Apatosaurus could not live in a forest environment, or its head would be constantly hitting trees and it moved left and right, browsing vegetation. Since grasses hadn’t evolved yet, they may have eaten a lot of relatively nutritious, low-lying plants, like ferns, horsetails, and algae. Movement

Witton, Mark (October 6, 2015). "Mark P. Witton's Blog: New sauropodoramas: Stormy brachiosaurs! Apatosaurine brontosmash!". Mark P. Witton's Blog . Retrieved June 17, 2023. Osborn, H.F. 1906. The skeleton of Brontosaurus and the skull of Morosaurus. Nature. 1890 (73), 282-284 Topics of The Times: Leapin' Lizards!". The New York Times. October 11, 1989 . Retrieved June 8, 2008.

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Every year, more people are reading our articles to learn about the challenges facing the natural world. Our future depends on nature, but we are not doing enough to protect our life support system. Pollution has caused toxic air in our cities, and farming and logging have wreaked havoc on our forests. Climate change is creating deserts and dead zones, and hunting is driving many species to the brink of extinction. This is the first time in Earth's history that a single species - humanity - has brought such disaster upon the natural world. But if we don't look after nature, nature can't look after us. We must act on scientific evidence, we must act together, and we must act now. Sinclair Oil Corporation has long been a fixture of American roads (and briefly in other countries) with its green dinosaur logo and mascot, a Brontosaurus. While Sinclair's early advertising included a number of different dinosaurs, eventually only Brontosaurus was used as the official logo, due to its popular appeal. [102] Gertie the Dinosaur (1914)

Larimore, Rachael (April 7, 2015). "Dino-Mite! Study Suggests That the Brontosaurus Really Did Exist". Slate. ISSN 1091-2339 . Retrieved June 18, 2015. a b c d Gould, S. J. (1991). Bully for Brontosaurus: Reflections in Natural History. W. W. Norton & Co. p.540. brontosaurus, (genus Brontosaurus), genus of large herbivorous sauropod dinosaurs living during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous epochs (163.5 million to 100.5 million years ago). Its fossil was first discovered in western North America in 1874 and first described in 1879 by American paleontologist Othniel Charles Marsh. In 1903, however, the genus Brontosaurus, which means “thunder lizard” in Greek, was subsumed by the earlier-described genus Apatosaurus. Despite the change in classification, the public still embraced the dinosaur as Brontosaurus, owing to the widespread use of its likeness during much of the 20th century in advertising, motion pictures, and television, as well as the presence of Brontosaurus reconstructions in museums throughout North America and Europe. The genus Brontosaurus was reinstated in 2015 after a morphological study of the family to which those genera belonged revealed that the physical differences between Brontosaurus and Apatosaurus were enough to separate them into two genera. The genus Brontosaurus contains only one species, B. excelsus. Taxonomic controversy

Interesting Facts

An interesting fact about the Brontosaurus was that it stood approximately 15 feet high at the hips, and had a length of about 90 feet. These dinosaurs could reach massive sizes, weighing approximate 33 tons on average. What’s really amazing about this great size however, is that these creatures were herbivores that lived entirely off of plants and other vegetation. Interesting Facts Farlow JO, Coroian ID, Foster JR (2010) Giants on the landscape: modelling the abundance of megaherbivorous dinosaurs of the Morrison formation (late Jurassic, western USA). Hist Biol 22:403–429 Wedel, M. J., Sanders, R. K., & Cuozzo, F. P. (2002). Osteological correlates of cervical musculature in Aves and Sauropoda (Dinosauria: Saurischia), with comments on the cervical ribs of Apatosaurus. Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkeley. a b Turner, C.E. and Peterson, F., (1999). "Biostratigraphy of dinosaurs in the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of the Western Interior, U.S.A." Pp. 77–114 in Gillette, D. D. (ed.), Vertebrate Paleontology in Utah. Utah Geological Survey Miscellaneous Publication 99-1.

Happy Valentine's Day from Apatosaurinae". Sauropod Vertebra Picture of the Week. February 15, 2021 . Retrieved June 10, 2023. In August 1883, Marshall P. Felch collected a disarticulated partial skull (USNM V 5730) of a sauropod further south in the Felch Quarry at Garden Park, Colorado and sent the specimen to Yale. [11] [12] Marsh referred the skull to B. excelsus, [11] [13] later featuring it in a skeletal reconstruction of the B. excelsus type specimen in 1891 [13] and the illustration was featured again in Marsh's landmark publication, The Dinosaurs of North America, in 1896. [7] At the Yale Peabody Museum, the skeleton of Brontosaurus excelsus was mounted in 1931 with a skull based on the Marsh reconstruction of the Felch Quarry skull. [14] While at the time most museums were using Camarasaurus casts for skulls, the Peabody Museum sculpted a completely different skull based on Marsh's recon. [14] [11] Marsh's skull was inaccurate for several other reasons: it included forward-pointing nasals, something truly different to any other dinosaur, and fenestrae differing from the drawing and other skulls. The mandible was based on a Camarasaurus'. [14] In 1998, the Felch Quarry skull that Marsh included in his 1896 skeletal restoration was suggested to belong to Brachiosaurus instead [11] and this was supported in 2020 with a redescription of the brachiosaurid material found at the Felch Quarry. [12] Second Dinosaur Rush and skull issue [ edit ] Obsolete mount of an apatosaurine referred to B. excelsus (specimen AMNH 460) with sculpted skull, completed in 1905, American Museum of Natural History These results came from two Brontosaurus skeletons: the one Marsh used to coin the name, and a second that could confidently be referred to as the same species. There are more possible Brontosaurus bones out there, and Tschopp studied many of them in preparation for the current study. But because the skeletons were incomplete, the bones popped up in various positions on the family tree. Now, with the new diplodocid tree in hand, Tschopp says he plans to take a second look at these bones to see whether they truly group with Brontosaurus or something else.Parrish said, “It was a surprising result, We didn’t think there would be any problem with them raising their heads, but it turns out there is a real, physical limit.” Parrish continued, “I don’t think our study answers whether they could rise up on their hind legs, but if they did there would be a blood pressure problem. I don’t think they would use that as a predominant way of feeding, as some people have suggested.” Molina-Pérez, R.; Larramendi, A. (2020). Dinosaur Facts and Figures: The Sauropods and Other Sauropodomorphs. Princeton University Press. p.256. ISBN 978-0-691-19069-3.

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